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APA Support Centre: When Information Is Missing

Citing Sources with Missing Information

Missing Information Reference List Citation In-text Citation
No Author

Start your citation with the title, followed by date and source information. Don't use "Anonymous" unless this is what's indicate on your source. 

Example - Articles and other sources that are part of a larger work:

Get on board for train safety. (2012, June 17). Toronto Star, A14.

Example - Book and other standalone works:

Introduction to food science. (2018). ABC Press.

(Title, Year)

Example - Newspaper Article:

("Get on Board," 2012)

Example - Book:

(Introduction to Food Science, 2018)

No Date

Write n.d. where you would normally provide the date.


Seneca College. (n.d.). Seneca's art collection.

(Author, n.d.)


(Seneca College, n.d.)

No Page Numbers

For In-Text Citation:
If you're quoting from a source without page numbers, include the location where you found the information. This includes the name of section/heading (if available) and paragraph number where you found the information. Count the paragraph from the beginning of the document or section (if available).

Although not required, APA encourages including the page number when paraphrasing if it will help the reader locate the information in a long text and distinguish between the information that is coming from you and the source.

(Author, Year, Section and/or paragraph number)


(Diabetes Canada, n.d., Move More section, para. 2)

(World Health Organization, 2020, para. 10)

No Title

In square brackets, describe the work that you are citing.


Vividata. (2018). [Potato chips - personally ate in the past 6 months for all respondents 14+ in Ontario].

(Author, Year)


(Vividata, 2018)

Unknown Source

If you don't have a source, consider searching for a work which supports the information you are including in your assignment or essay.

You may also cite the information as personal communication if your source is a personal interview, 


Adapted from APA Style: Missing Reference Information